Son of General Roswell and Harriet (Stephens) Randall.
Born: May 3, 1811 in Madison County, New York.
Died: August 14, 1876 in Cortland, Cortland County, New York.
Occupation: Agriculturist, write, educator, and politician.
Married: Jane Rebecca Polhemus February 4, 1834 in Auburn, Cayuga County, New York.

He came as a young boy from Madison County, New York to Cortland.

On February 4, 1834, Henry married in Auburn, New York, Jane Rebecca Polhemus, the daughter of Rev. Henry Polhemus and Jane (Anderson) Polhemus. They had a son, Roswell Stephens Randall born November 8, 1834, who married Mary Forby, of Albany, New York. Henry's son Francis died on June 29, 1844, aged 21 months. His daughter Hattie S. Randall married D. J. Mosher, MD, on June 18, 1872.

In November 1849, he ran for Secretary of State on the Democratic ticket but was defeated by Whig Christopher Morgan. He was Secretary of State of New York from 1852 to 1853, elected in November 1851.

Randall wrote The Life of Thomas Jefferson, published in three volumes in 1858, considered the most complete and authoritative biography ever written on Jefferson, because he was the only biographer permitted to interview Jefferson’s immediate family. In a letter to James Parton he relates that the family believed Jefferson's nephew Peter Carr was the father of Sally Hemings's children.

Randall was a delegate to the 1860 Democratic National Convention at Charleston, South Carolina. He was buried at the Cortland Rural Cemetery.